Chapter 13

The works named here are organized into the following categories:

  1. Drafting of Laws and Other Legal Documents
    1. Books
    2. Articles
  2. Readability and Plain English
    1. Books
    2. Articles
  3. Statutory Interpretation
    1. Books
    2. Articles
  4. Legislation
  5. Legal Language and Legal Writing
    1. Treatises
    2. Usage and Mechanics
    3. Dictionaries and Thesauri
    4. Bibliographies
  6. Gender-Neutral Writing

In addition to these works, there are bill drafting manuals published by most of the states and updated irregularly. The revisor's office keeps a collection of state drafting manuals.

A specialized bibliography of work on criminal law appears in section 3 of Chapter 5 of this manual.

Table of Contents

1. Drafting of Laws and Other Legal Documents

A. Books

American Bar Association, Law Student Division. Guide to Legislative Research and Drafting. Chicago: Law Student Division, American Bar Association, 1979.

Bowers, Frederick. Linguistic Aspects of Legislative Expression. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1989.

Child, Barbara. Drafting Legal Documents: Materials and Problems. St. Paul: West Pub. Co., 1988.

Cook, Robert N. Legal Drafting. Brooklyn: Foundation Press, 1951.

Council of State Governments. State Bill Drafting Manuals. Rev., Chicago, 1951.

Cultice, Robert D. A List of Selected Publications on the Drafting of Legal and Legislative Instruments. Columbus, Ohio: College of Law Library, Ohio State University, 1951.

Dick, Robert C. Legal Drafting. 2d ed. Toronto: Carswell, 1985.

Dickerson, Reed. Legislative Drafting. Boston: Little, Brown, 1954.

_____. The Fundamentals of Legal Drafting. Boston: Published for the American Bar Foundation by Little, Brown, 1965.

_____. Materials on Legal Drafting. St. Paul: West Pub. Co., 1981.

_____. Fundamentals of Legal Drafting. 2d ed. Boston: Little, Brown, 1986.

_____, ed. Professionalizing Legislative Drafting: The Federal Experience. Chicago: American Bar Association, 1973.

Driedger, Elmer A. A Manual of Instructions for Legislative and Legal Writing. Ottawa: Dept. of Justice, Canada, 1982.

Freund, Ernst. Legislative Drafting. Indianapolis: Mellett Ptg. Co. Inc., 1916.

Grad, Frank P. The Drafting of State Constitutions: Working Papers for a Manual. New York: National Municipal League, 1967.

Handbook of the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws and Proceedings of the Annual Conference Meeting In Its Eighty- Sixth Year. Chicago: 1977.

Harvard University Law School. An Institute on the Science of Draftsmanship. Cambridge, Mass.: 1951.

International Seminar and Workshop on the Teaching of Legal Drafting. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University School of Law, 1975.

Kennedy, Duncan Leroy. Bill Drafting. St. Paul, 1958.

Lammers, Bernard. The Teaching of Legislative Drafting & Process in U.S. Laws Schools. Chicago: American Bar Foundation, 1977.

Mehlman, Maxwell J., and Edward G. Grossman. Yale Legislative Service Handbook of Legislative Drafting. New Haven, Conn.: Yale Legislative Services, Yale Law School, 1977.

Mullins, M.E. A Handbook for Legislative Drafters. Little Rock: Arkansas Legislative Digest, 1986.

N.D. Journal of Legislation. A Handbook on Research and Drafting of Legislation. Notre Dame, Ind., May 1974.

Namasivayam, S. Drafting of Legislation. New York: Panther House, 1971.

Parkinson, Thomas I. Legislative Drafting. New York: The Academy of Political Science, 1912.

Peacock, James Craig. Notes on Legislative Drafting. REC Foundation, 1961.

Piesse, E.L., and J. Gilchrist Smith. The Elements of Drafting. 2d ed. London: Stevens, 1958.

Rutgers University, School of Law. Bill Drafting. New Brunswick, N.J.: 1971.

Table of Contents

B. Articles

Allen, Layman E. "Symbolic Logic: A Razor-Edged Tool for Drafting and I nterpretating Legal Documents." Yale L.J. 66 (1957): 833-79.

Allen, Layman E., and C. Rudy Engholm. "Normalized Legal Drafting and the Query Method." JLE 29 (1978): 380-412.

_____. "The Need for Clear Structure in 'Plain Language' Legal Drafting." U. of Michigan J. of Law Reform 13 (1980) 455-513.

Appelman, Jean. "The Written Argument on Appeal." Notre Dame Lawyer 41 (1965): 40-8.

Beardsley, Charles A. "Judicial Draftsmanship." Washington L.R. 24 (1949): 146-53.

Bell, John A. "Extremist Drafting of Federal Statutes." Scribes Journal of Legal Writing 1 (1990): 31-44.

Bennion, F.A.R. "Statute Law Obscurity and the Drafting Parameters." British J. of Law & Society 5 (1976): 235-45.

Cavers, David F. "The Simplification of Government Regulations." Federal Bar J. 8 (1947): 339-56.

Conrad, Alfred F. "New Ways to Write Laws." Yale L.J. 56 (1947): 458-81.

Cook, Robert N. "General Principles of Legal Drafting." Ohio Bar 23 (1950): 251-5.

_____. "The Teaching of Legal Drafting." Western Reserve L.R. 4 (1953) 299-317.

Dickerson, Reed. "How to Write a Law." Notre Dame Lawyer 31 (1955): 14-27.

_____. "Legal Drafting: Writing as Thinking, or, Talk-Back from Your Draft and How to Exploit It." JLE 29 (1978): 373-9.

Dunahoo, Kermit L. "Avoiding Inadvertent Syntactic Ambiguity in Legal Draftsmanship." Drake L.R. 20 (1970): 137-58.

Edwards, Thomas Haines, and James P. Barber. "A Computer Method for Legal Drafting Using Propositional Logic." Texas L.R. 53 (1975): 965-1004.

Farnsworth, E. Allan. "Some Considerations in the Drafting of Agreements: Problems in Interpretation and Gap-Filling." NYCBA R 23 (1968): 105-117.

Gopen, George D. "Let the Buyer in the Ordinary Course of Business Beware: Suggestions for Revising the Prose of the Uniform Commercial Code." U. of Chicago L.R. 54 (1987): 1178-1214.

Haynsworth, Harry J., IV. "How to Draft Clear and Concise Legal Documents." Practical Lawyer 31 (1985): 41-56.

Kirk, Maurice B. "Legal Drafting: Curing Unexpressive Language." Texas Tech. L.R. 3 (1971): 23-54.

_____. "Legal Drafting: How Should a Document Begin?" Texas Tech. L.R. 3 (1972): 233-63.

_____. "Legal Drafting: Some Elements of Technique." Texas Tech. L.R. 4 (1973): 297-316.

_____. "Legal Drafting: The Ambiguity of 'And' and 'Or'." Texas Tech. L.R. 2 (1971): 235-53.

Lindey, Alexander. "Let's Write Better Contracts." Practical Lawyer 3.1 (1957): 32-8.

Maxey, David W. "Fundamentals of Draftsmanship--A Guide in Preparing Agreements." Barrister 10 (1983): 35-42.

Miller, Arthur S. "Statutory Language and the Purposive Use of Ambiguity." Virginia L.R. 42 (1956): 23-39.

Schiffbauer, William G. Guide to Legislative Research and Drafting. American Bar Association, Student Law Division. Chicago: ABA, 1979 (Pamphlet)

Schlesinger, Edward S. "English as a Second Language for Lawyers." Institute on Estate Planning 12 (1978): Chapter 7 (paragraphs 700- 716).

Sutin, Michael G. "Drafting Conventions for Unconventional Drafting." Practical Real Estate Lawyer 5 (1989): 61-74.

Sweet, Justin. "The Lawyer's Role in Contract Drafting." J. of the State Bar of California 43 (1968): 362-80.

Swisher, Peter Nash. "Techniques of Legal Drafting: A Survival Manual." U. of Richmond L.R. 15 (1981): 873-93.

Thomas, J.G. "Problems in Drafting Legal Instruments." Illinois Bar J. 39 (1950): 51-7.

Tilton, Linda B., and James T. Tilton. "Basic Considerations in Designing Forms." Practical Lawyer (July 1980): 55-69.

Table of Contents

2. Readability and Plain English

A. Books

Biskind, Elliott L. Simplify Legal Writing New York: Arco, 1975.

Felker, Daniel B., et. al. Guidelines for Document Designers. Washington, D.C.: American Institutes for Research, 1981.

_____, ed. Document Design: A Review of the Relevant Research. Washington, D.C.: Document Design Center, 1971.

Flesch, Rudolph Franz. The Art of Clear Thinking. New York: Harper's, 1951.

_____. The Art of Plain Talk. New York: Macmillan, 1962.

_____. The Art of Readable Writing. New York: Harper & Row, 1974.

_____. How to Write Plain English: A Book for Lawyers and Consumers. New York: Harper & Row, 1979.

_____. How to Write, Speak, and Think More Effectively. New York: New American Library, 1964.

Houp, Kenneth, and Thomas E. Pearsall. Reporting Technical Information. 4th ed. Encino, Calif.: Glencoe Publishing, 1980.

Joseph, Joel, and Jeffrey Hiller. Legal Agreements in Plain English. Chicago: Contemporary Press, 1982.

MacDonald, Duncan A. Drafting Documents in Plain Language. New York: Practicing Law Institute, 1979.

Mellinkoff, David. The Language of the Law. Boston: Little, Brown, 1963.

_____. Legal Writing: Sense and Nonsense. St. Paul: West Pub. Co., 1981: New York: Scribners, 1982.

Office of Consumer Affairs, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, and Document Design Center, American Institutes for Research. How Plain English Works for Business: Twelve Case Studies. Washington D.C., 1984.

Redish, Janice. How to Draft More Understandable Legal Documents. Washington, D.C.: Document Design Center, 1979.

_____. "How to Write Regulations (and Other Legal Documents) in Clear English," Drafting Documents in Plain Language 1981. Commercial Law and Practice Course Handbook Series Number 254. New York: Practising Law Institute, 1981.

Rothenberg, Robert. The Plain Language Law Dictionary. New York: Viking, 1981.

Wydick, Richard C. Plain English for Lawyers. Durham, N.C.: Carolina Academic Press, 1979.

Table of Contents

B. Articles

Aiken, Ray J. "Let's Not Oversimplify Legal Language." Rocky Mountain L.R. 32 (1960): 358-64. See Hager below.

Allen, Layman E., and C. Rudy Engholm. "The Need for Clear Structure in 'Plain Language' Legal Drafting." U. of Michigan J. of Law Reform 13 (1980): 455-513.

Alterman, Irwin M. "Plain and Accurate Style in Court Papers." Cooley L.R. 2 (1984): 243-340. Reprinted as a pamphlet. Philadelphia: ALI-ABA Committee on Continuing Professional Education, 1987.

Aslanian-Bedikian, Mary. "Clear Expression in Labor Arbitration." Michigan Bar J. 63 (1984): 1068-71.

Axline, Michael, and John Bonine. "Plain talk: Making NEPA Work." Land and Water Law Review 25 (1990): 61-82.

Beardsley, Charles A. "Beware of, Eschew and Avoid Pompous Prolixity and Platitudinous Epistles!" S.B.J. (of the State Bar of California) 16 (1941): 65-9. Reply by Robert A. Morton, "Challenge Made to Beardsley's Plea for Plain and Simple Legal Syntax." S.B.J. 16 (1941): 103-6. Reply by Beardsley, "Wherein and Whereby Beardsley Makes Reply to Challenge." S.B.J. 16 (1941): 106-7.

Benson, Robert W. "The End of Legalese: The Game is Over." New York U.R. of Law & Social Change 13 (1985): 519-73.

Benson, Robert W., and Joan B. Kessler. "Legalese v. Plain English: An Empirical Study of Persuasion and Credibility in Appellate Brief Writing." Loyola U. of Los Angeles L.R. 20 (1987): 301-21.

Black, Bernard. "A Model Plain Language Law." Stanford L.R. 33 (1981): 255-300.

Bowers, Jane. "Properly Using Plain Language." The Practical Lawyer 36 (1990): 15-24.

Cavers, David F. "The Simplification of Government Regulations." Federal Bar J. 8 (1947): 339-56.

Charrow, Veda R. "Some Guidelines for Clear Legal Writing." University of Bridgeport Law Review 8 (1987): 405-08.

_____. What is Plain English Anyway? Washington, D.C.: Document Design Center, 1979. (12-pg pamphlet)

Charrow, Veda R., and Robert P. Charrow. "Making Legal Language Understandable: A Psycholinguistic Study of Jury Instructions." Columbia L.R. 79 (1979): 1306-74.

Collins, Terrence. "Teaching 'Plain Language' as Process in the Legal Writing Course." Legal Assistants Update (December 1982): 15-20.

Committee for Plain Language Conveyancing. "Report of the Committee for Plain Language Conveyancing." Hawaii Bar J. 16 (1981): 91-104.

Davis, Jeffrey. "Protecting Consumers from Overdisclosure and Gobbledygook: An Empirical Look at the Simplification of Consumer-Credit Contracts." Virginia L.R. 63 (1977): 841-907.

Dick, Robert C. "Plain English in Legal Drafting." Alberta L.R. 18 (1980): 509-14.

Dickerson, Reed. "Should Plain English be Legislated?" Res Gestae 24 (1980): 332-4.

Eagleson, Robert D. "Taking the Gobbledegook Out of Legal Language." Queensland Law Society Journal 20 (1990): 103-15.

Edgerton, T. Selden. "Plain English Means Never Having to Say Hereby" Michigan Bar J. 65 (1986): 458-60.

_____. "There Must Be a Pony in Here Somewhere." Michigan Bar J. 65 (1986): 926-28.

Engholm, Rudy. "Logic and Laws: Relief from Statutory Obfuscation." U. of Michigan J. of Law Reform 9 (1976): 322-47.

Felsenfeld, Carl. "The Future of Plain English." Michigan Bar. J. 62 (1983): 942-4.

Felsenfeld, Carl, David Cohen, and Martin Fingerhut. "The Plain English Movement in the United States: Comments." Canadian Business L.J. 6 (1982): 408-52.

Ferry, Michael. "Plain English Legislation: Further Considerations." Case & Comment 85 (1980): 34-8.

Ferry, Michael, and Richard B. Teitelman. "Plain-Language Laws: Giving the Consumer an Even Break." Clearinghouse R. 14 (1980): 522-8.

Forshey, John B. "Plain English Contracts: The Demise of Legalese?" Baylor L.R. 30 (1978): 765-83.

Frooman, Hillary. "Lawyers and Readability." J. of Business Communication 18 (1981): 45-51.

Goldfarb, Ronald. "My Secretary, Hereinafter Referred to as Cuddles... Crimes of Legalese--In and Out of Court." Barrister 5 (1978): 40-3.

Goldstein, Bernard H. "Plain Language: A Comment and Review of an Aid to Its Achievement." NYCBA R 32 (1977): 622-5.

Hager, John W. "Let's Simplify Legal Language." Rocky Mountain L.R. 32 (1959): 74-86. See Aiken above.

Hathaway, George H. "An Overview of the Plain English Movement for Lawyers." Michigan Bar J. 62 (1983): 945-9.

_____. "Plain English in Judicial Opinions." Michigan Bar J. 62 (1983): 976-8.

_____. "The Plain English Movement in Law--Past, Present, and Future." Michigan Bar J. 64 (1985): 1236-9.

Helwig, Norman R. "The Plain English Movement--An Attack on 'Legalese'." Colorado Lawyer 8 (1979): 2372-81.

Hughes, Robert D. "Some Plain Talk About Plain Language." NYCBA R 33 (1978): 206-11.

Isaaco, Lewis M., Jr., and Bernard H. Goldstein. "More Plain Talk." NYCBA R 33 (1978): 383-5.

Kellog, Irving. "A Plan for Drafting in Plain English." California S.B.J. 56 (1981): 154-9.

Kelly, David State Leger. "Legislative Drafting and Plain English." Adelaide L.R. 10 (1986): 409-26.

Kretz, Walter A., Jr. "Plain English Law: Let the Buyer Beware." New York L.S.L.R. 23 (1978): 824-33.

Leete, B.A. "Plain Language Legislation: A comparison of Approaches." American Business L.J. 18 (1981): 511-24.

Leskovac, Helen. "Legal Writing and Plain English: Does Voice Matter?" Syracuse L.R. 38 (1987): 1193-1221.

Millus, Albert J. "Plain Language Laws: Are They Working?" Uniform Commercial Code L.J. 16 (1983): 147-58.

Moore, Bonnie B. "Short and Plain Statements: A Pleading for Plain Language in Legal Writing." Southern U. L.R. 12 (1985): 47-56.

Moukad, Rosemary. "New York's Plain English Law." Fordham Urban L. J. 8 (1980) 451-65.

Plack, James T. "Plain Language Movement: An Overview with Recent Developments." J. of the Missouri Bar 36 (1980): 40-7.

Prather, William C. "In Defense of the People's Use of Three Syllable Words." Alabama Lawyer 39 (1978): 394-400.

Procaccia, Uriel. "Readable Insurance Policies: Judicial Regulation and Interpretation." Israel L.R. 14 (1979): 74-103.

Raymond, James C. "Legal Writing: An Obstruction to Justice." Alabama L.R. 30 (1978): 1-17.

Ricketson, Matthew. "Plain English and the Law." Law Institute J. 62 (1988): 614-17.

Ross, Steven M. "On Legalities and Linguistics: Plain Language Legislation." Buffalo L.R. 30 (1981): 317-63.

Semegen, Patrick W. "Plain Language Legislation." Case & Comment 85 (1980): 42-9.

Siegel, Alan M. "To Lift the Curse of Legalese--Simplify, Simplify." Across the Board 14 (1977): 64-70.

_____. "How to Say It in Plain English." Management R. 68 (1979): 14-9.

_____. "The Plain English Revolution." Across the Board 18 (1981): 19-26. Reprinted in Readings in Technical Writing. Eds. David C. Leonard and Peter J. McGuire. New York: Macmillan, 1983. 222-9.

Thomas, Richard. "Plain English and the Law." Statute L. R. (1985): 139-51.

Thomas, Richard, and Liz Dunbar. Plain English for Lawyers: Some Guidelines on Writing and Designing Legal Documents. London: National Consumer Council, 1984. (26-pg pamphlet) Excerpted in J. of the Law Society of Scotland 29 (1984): 371-3, 411-4.

Timm, Paul R., and Daniel Oswald. "Plain English Laws: Symbolic or Real?" J. of Business Communication 22 (1985): 31-8.

United States Department of Commerce. The Productivity of Plain English. Washington D.C.: Office of Consumer Affairs, 1983. (13-pg pamphlet).

Weissman, David L. "'No-Nonsense, Straight-from-the-Shoulder' School: Another Note on Legal Style." Lawyer's Guild R. 20 (1960): 24-6.

Willis, John. "Making Legal Documents Readable: Some American Initiatives." Law Institute J. 52 (1978): 513-22.

Winter, Frank. "Legalese, Bafflegarb, and Plain Language Laws." Canadian Community L.J. 4 (1980): 5-14.

Word, Thomas S., Jr. "A Brief for Plain English Wills and Trusts." U. of Richmond L.R. 14 (1980): 471-81.

Wydick, Richard C. "Plain English for Lawyers." California L.R. 66 (1978): 727-56.

_____. Review of Rudolph Flesch, How to Write Plain English: A Book for Lawyers and Consumers. Michigan L.R. 78 (1980): 711-21.

Younger, Irving. "In Praise of Simplicity." New Zealand L.J. (1984): 277-9.

Table of Contents

3. Statutory Interpretation

A. Books

Black, Henry Campbell. Handbook on the Construction and Interpretation of the Laws. 2d ed. St. Paul: West Pub. Co., 1911.

Bryant, Margaret M. English in the Law Courts: The Part that Articles, Prepositions and Conjunctions Play in Legal Decisions. New ed. New York: F. Ungar, 1962.

Crawford, Earl T. The Construction of Statutes. St. Louis: Thomas Law Book Co., 1940.

Dickerson, Reed. The Interpretation and Application of Statutes. Boston: Little, Brown, 1975.

Dwarris, Sir Fortunatus. A General Treatise on Statutes: Their Rules of Construction and the Proper Boundaries of Legislation and of Judicial Interpretation. Albany, N.Y.: W. Gould & Sons, 1871.

Endlich, Gustav A. A Commentary on the Interpretation of Statutes. Jersey City, N.J.: F.D. Linn & Co., 1888.

Hart, Henry M., and Albert M. Sacks. The Legal Process: Basic Problems in the Making and Application of Law . Cambridge, Mass.: tentative edition, 1958.

Koons, Charles Vinton. Statutory Interpretation and Construction: Cases and Materials. Washington: Lerner Law Book Co., 1959.

McCaffrey, Francis J. Statutory Construction: A Statement and Exposition of the General Rules of Statutory Construction. New York: Central Book Co. Inc., 1953.

McDougal, Lasswell & Miller. The Interpretation of Agreements and World Public Order. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1967.

Mishkin, Paul J., and Clarence Morris. On Law in Courts: An Introduction to Judicial Development of Case and Statute Law. Brooklyn: Foundation Press, 1965.

Probert, Walter. Law, Language and Communication. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1972.

Statsky, William P. Legislative Analysis: How To Use Statutes and Regulations. St. Paul: West Pub. Co., 1975.

Sutherland, Jabez Gridley. Statutes and Statutory Construction. 5th ed. by Norman J. Singer. Chicago: Callaghan.

Twining, William, and David Miers. How To Do Things With Rules: A Primer of Interpretation. South Hackensack, N. J. Rothman, 1976.

Table of Contents

B. Articles

Fisk, Catherine L., "The Last Article About the Language of ERISA Preemption? A Case Study of the Failure of Textualism." Harvard Journal On Legislation, 33 (1996) 35-103.

Mayton, William T. "Law Among the Pleonasms: The Futility and Aconstitutionality of Legislative History in Statutory Interpretation." Emory L.J. 41 (Winter 1992): 113-158.

Schauer, Frederick. "Statutory Construction and the Coordinating Function of Plain Meaning." 1990 Supreme Court Review: 231-256. Schauer discusses the usefulness and even the possible necessity of a plain meaning approach for a busy court.

Slawson, W. David. "Legislative History and the Need to Bring Statutory Interpretation under the Rule of Law." Stanford L.R. 44 (Jan 1992): 383-427.

Sunstein, Cass R. "Interpreting Statutes in the Regulatory State." Harvard L.R. 103 (1989): 405-505.

"Why Learned Hand Would Never Consult Legislative History Today." Harvard L.R. 105 (March 1992): 1005-1024.

Table of Contents

4. Legislation

Anderson, Robert Milford. Legislation. Woodland Hills, Calif.: F. Cool Publications, 1950.

Chamberlain, Joseph Perkins. Legislative Processes: National and State. New York: Appleton-Century, 1936.

Citizens Conference on State Legislatures. State Constitutional Provisions Affecting State Legislatures. Kansas City, 1967.

Cohen, Julius. Materials and Problems on Legislation. 2d ed. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1967.

Coigne, Armand Brous. Statute Making: A Treatise on the Means and Methods for the Enactment of Statute Law in the United States. 2d ed. New York: Commerce Clearing House, 1965.

Cooley, Thomas M. A Treatise on the Constitutional Limitations Which Rest Upon the Legislative Power of the States of the American Union. th ed. Boston: Little, Brown, 1927.

Eskridge, William N., and Philip P. Frickey. Cases and Materials on Legislation: Statutes and the Creation of Public Policy. St. Paul: West Pub. Co., 1988.

Horack, Frank Edward. Cases and Materials on Legislation. 2d ed. Chicago: Callaghan, 1954.

Ilbert, Sir Courtenny Peregrine. The Mechanics of Law Making. New York: Columbia University Press, 1914.

Jones, Chester L. Statute Law Making in the United States. Boston: F.W. Faxon Company, 1923.

Lenhoff, Arthur. Comments, Cases and Other Materials on Legislation . Buffalo, N.Y. : Dennis & Co., Inc., 1949.

Minnesota Constitutional Study Commission. "Special Legislation (Local Bills) and Home Rule in Minnesota." Excerpt from Intergovernmental Relations and Local Government Committee report. Nov. 1972.

Newman, Frank C., and Stanley S. Surrey. Legislation: Cases and Materials. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1955.

Nutting, Charles Bernard, and Reed Dickerson. Cases and Materials on Legislation. 5th ed. St. Paul: West Pub. Co., 1978.

Read, Horace Emerson, and others. Materials on Legislation. 3d ed. Mineola, N.Y.: Foundation Press, 1973.

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5. Legal Language And Legal Writing

A. Treatises

Bishin, William R., and Christopher D. Stone. Law, Language and Ethics: An Introduction to Law and Legal Method. Mineola, N.Y., Foundation Press, 1972.

Brand, Norman, and John O. White. Legal Writing: The Strategy of Persuasion. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1976.

Charrow, Veda R., and Myra K. Erhardt. Clear and Effective Legal Writing. Boston: Little, Brown, 1986.

Cooper, Frank E. Effective Legal Writing. Indianapolis: Bobbs- Merrill, 1953.

_____. Writing in Law Practice. Rev. ed. Indianapolis: Bobbs- Merrill, 1963.

Garner, Bryan A. The Elements of Legal Style. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Goldfarb, Ronald L., and James C. Raymond. Clear Understandings: A Guide to Legal Writing. New York: Random House, 1982.

Goldstein, Tom, and Jethro K. Lieberman. The Lawyer's Guide to Writing Well. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989.

Goodrich, Peter. Legal Discourse: Studies in Linguistics, Rhetoric, and Legal Analysis. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987.

Gospen, George D. Writing from a Legal Perspective. St. Paul: West Pub. Co., 1981.

Philbrick, Frederick Arthur. Language and the Law: The Semantics of Forensic English. New York: Macmillan, 1949.

Squires, Lynn B., and Marjorie Dick Rombauer. Legal Writing in a Nutshell. St. Paul: West Pub. Co., 1982.

White, James B. The Legal Imagination, Studies in the Nature of Legal Thought and Expression. Boston: Little, Brown, 1973.

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B. Usage and Mechanics

Bowen, Catherine (Drinker). The Lawyer and the King's English. Philadelphia: Brandeis Lawyers' Society, 1951.

Ebbitt, Wilma R., and David R. Ebbitt. Index to English. 7th ed. Scott, Foresman and Company, 1982.

Freeman, Morton S. Grammatical Lawyer. Philadelphia American Law Institute. American Bar Association Committee on Continuing Professional Education, 1979.

Sloane, S.B. The Legal Speller. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1977.

Strunk, William, Jr., and E.B. White. The Elements of Style. 2d ed. N.Y.: Macmillan, 1972.

A Uniform System of Citation. Harvard Law Review Association, 1981.

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C. Dictionaries and Thesauri

Black, Henry Campbell. Black's Law Dictionary. 5th ed. St. Paul: West Pub. Co., 1979.

Burton, William C. Legal Thesaurus. New York: Macmillan, 1980.

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D. Bibliographies

Carrick, Kathleen M., and Donald J. Dunn. "Legal Writing: An Evaluation of the Textbook Literature." New York L.S.L.R. 30 (1985): 645-75.

Collins, Terence, and Darryl Hattenhauer. "Law and Language: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography on Legal Writing." JLE 33 (1983): 141-51.

de Vergie, Adrienne C. English for Lawyers: A Bibliography of Style Manuals and Other Writing Guides. Austin: University of Texas at Austin School of Law, 1975.

Dinsmore, Pamela, and Gail Dykstra. "Readability and Legal Writing: A Preliminary List of CLIC's Legal Information Secretariat Holdings." Toronto: Canadian Legal Information Council, 1985.

Freeman, Donald C. "Books on Legal Writing or Legal Writing Bibliography." Syllabus (Sept. 1982): 5.

George D., and Kary D. Smout. "Legal Writing: A Bibliography." Legal Writing: The Journal of the Legal Writing Institute 1 (1991): 93-122.

Kolin, Philip C., and Ronald G. Marquardt. "Research on Legal Writing: A Bibliography." Law Lib. J. 78 (1986): 493-517.

Levi, Judith N. "Linguistics, Language, and Law: A Topical Bibliography." Bloomington: Indiana Linguistics Club, 1983. (48-pg pamphlet).

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6. Gender-Neutral Writing

Corbett, Maryann. "Clearing the Air: Some Thoughts on Gender-Neutral Writing." IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, Vol. 33, No. 1, March 1990, pp. 2-6.

Maggio, Rosalie. The Nonsexist Word Finder: A Dictionary of Gender- Free Usage. Phoenix; New York : Onyx Press, 1987.

Marshall, Joan K. On Equal Terms: A Thesaurus for Nonsexist Indexing and Cataloging. Neal-Schuman Publishers, 1977.

Miller, Casey, and Kate Swift. The Handbook of Nonsexist Writing. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1980.

Stilwell, Ray. "Sexism in the Statutes - Identifying and Solving the Problems of Ambiguous Gender Bias in Legal Writing." Buffalo L.R. 32 (1983): 559-87.

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